This page provides information on the duties of the local authority to provide accommodation to children under the age of 16. It includes information of how the local authority will assess a child and the types of accommodation that can be provided.
In some circumstances the Local Authority may have a duty to provide accommodation for under 16s
Why might a young person under 16 need accommodation?
The young person may have had a disagreement with his/her parents and feel that he/she can no longer live in the same house, or the parents may have locked the young person out or asked them to leave. This can be a distressing time. However, there are options available.
What are the accommodation options open to an under 16 year old who is homeless?
The young person may choose to stay with a friend's family or another member of his/her extended family for a time. This could be acceptable as a short term option. This could be part of a kinship care arrangement. Please see our page on Family and Friends Care for more information.
Depending on the age of the young person the host family may choose to apply to court for a Child Arrangements Order or a Special Guardianship Order so one or more adults in the family have Parental Responsibility for the young person and legal status as a carer. (Child Arrangements Orders normally end at the age of 16, Special Guardianship Orders normally end at the age of 18.) The host family or relative can use a solicitor to assist in this process or represent themselves in court. Please see our page on Special Guardianship for more details.
The child or young person may also live with a person they are not related to but must inform Children's Services of the arrangement as soon as possible. Please see our page on Private Fostering for more information.
Alternatively, if the above is not an option the young person can seek support from the Children's Services. Under Section 17 of the Children's Act 1989, the Local Authority has a duty to safeguard and promote the welfare of children within their area who are in need. The young person, their parents, extended family or friend, or advocate can approach Children's Services for help in finding accommodation. For this to happen it must be established that the young person is a 'child in need' and meets the Local Authorities eligibility criteria. If a young person is a 'child in need' then Children's Services must provide support to the young person.
What happens next when support is needed from Children's Services?
The Local Authority must carry out an assessment to find out whether the young person is a 'child in need' and if so what services the young person requires. A young person will be deemed a 'child in need' where they have substantial needs, for example, there are concerns with regards to their health, safety or development. A young person who does not have any accommodation will be deemed a child in need.
The Local Authority' assessment should happen if a referral has been made by a family friend, a parent who cannot cope with the young person's behavior or because the young person has presented himself to Local Authority's Children's Services as homeless.
Children under 16 are not eligible for housing from the local housing department
What happens if the young person cannot find anywhere to live?
If the young person cannot find anywhere to live he/she may be accommodated by the Local Authority. This is known as Section 20 accommodation (S20 Children Act 1989) and the young person is described as "looked after" by the Local Authority. Children's Services have a duty to take such steps which are reasonably practicable to accommodate the young person.
When a young person is accommodated under Section 20 the Children's Service are responsible for the young person and must determine who the young person should live with, for example, extended family members or friends. Children's Services will accommodate the young person in the following instances:
- where the parents are in prison
- where there has been breakdown between the young person and parents
- when the young person is homeless.
Children's Services will first consider the young person's parents' ability to provide accommodation as long as there is no risk of harm. If the parents cannot provide suitable accommodation or are deemed to be a risk to the young person then Children's Services will consider the young person's wider family and friends or consider placing the young person with foster carers. Children's Services shall consider all those persons who can provide accommodation for the young person.
In an emergency situation Children's Services, provided they have carried out basic checks, can place the young person with relatives or friends for a certain time without them being an approved foster carer. When Children's Services accommodate a young person they will try to ensure they are near to their family, any subsequent move does not affect the young person's education and they are accommodated with any siblings.
When do Children's Services have a duty to accommodate under Section 20?
The Local Authority will have to accommodate under section 20 if:
- No-one has Parental Responsibility for the young person or
- The young person is lost or abandoned or
- The person who has been caring for the young person is unable to continue to provide suitable care and accommodation.
These rules also apply to asylum seekers.
Please see our page on Duties of the Local Authority for more information.
Who has to agree to Section 20 accommodation?
The parents with Parental Responsibility must agree to the young person being accommodated under s20. If the parents object and are willing to provide or find alternative accommodation, the Local Authority cannot force the s20 accommodation.
If Children's Services have concerns about the ability of the parents to provide suitable accommodation to the young person they make decide to take child protection proceedings. As with section 17, accommodation under section 20 is focused on co-operation between the young person, family and Local Authority. If accommodation is provided under section 20 the Local Authority must consider the views of the young person.
Can parents still remove the young person from Local Authority accommodation at any time, regardless of the views of the young person?
Yes, there is nothing the Local Authority can do to stop this unless it considers the young person to be at risk of significant harm if he/she is returned to the parents. If that is the case the Local Authority should apply to court for an Interim Care Order.
What will the Local Authority consider before accommodating a child under Section 20?
The Local Authority will consider:
- who is making the order
- whether the child is in need
- whether the child in the Local Authority area
- whether the child needs accommodation and whether that is due to the grounds given above where a duty arises
- the child's wishes and feelings
- whether any person with parental responsibility objects to the Local Authority accommodating the young person under section 20.
The Local Authority when accommodating a young person above the age of 16 must consider the young person's views.
What steps can the Local Authority take if they believe the young person is suffering harm or is at risk of harm?
Children's Services may undertake child protection procedures, such as carrying out a section 47 assessment. This means that Children's Services must carry out an investigation when they have reasonable cause to believe that a young person living in their area has suffered or is likely to suffer significant harm.
The investigation will involve an assessment of the young person's needs, and the ability of those caring for the young person to meet their needs. The purpose of this investigation is to decide whether Children's Services should take any action to safeguard or promote the young person's welfare.
The young person's parents will be interviewed, as well as the young person (unless they are considered to be too young). Information from the young person's school, youth worker or doctor may also be looked at. If Children's Services are carrying out an investigation under section 47, it is important that parents co-operate with the social worker.
For further information on this please see our Child protection - Referral, assessment and outcomes page.
What are the types of accommodation the Local Authority may provide?
Family or friends
The Local Authority may place the young person with extended family or a family friend. This may be a short term solution to allow the young person to remain with known people, and to encourage reintegration into the family home.
The Local Authority may place a young person with a foster carer as part of their family. They may live alongside the foster carer's own children, or other children who are classed as "looked after".
This is commonly where children stay in large accommodation with several other children. The young person will be allocated a key worker who will have regular meetings with the young person, there will usually be a team to supervise the children throughout the day and night.
Will parents have to pay if a young person is accommodated by Children's Services?
Where a young person is being accommodated by Children's Services the parents can be charged for the support provided where this is reasonable to do so.
The parents remain financially responsible for their son or daughter even though they are living elsewhere
If a young person is placed with friends or family will they get any financial help?
If the Local Authority agrees to accommodate the young person under S20 of the Children's Act 1989, it may place him or her with friends or family who will act as foster carers and they may receive a fostering allowance from the Local Authority.
The host family would not have Parental Responsibility for the young person so decisions would still be made by the parents.
Shelter are able to provide advice on accommodation and housing: 0808 800 4444